Friday, 23 August 2019

how to Timeline of India's Mughal Empire?

how to Timeline of India's Mughal Empire?

The Mughal Empire extended crosswise over a large portion of northern and focal India, and what is currently Pakistan, from 1526 to 1857, when the British banished the last Mughal ruler. Together, the Muslim Mughal rulers and their overwhelmingly Hindu subjects made a brilliant age in Indian history, loaded with workmanship, logical accomplishment, and dazzling engineering. Later in the Mughal time frame, nonetheless, the heads confronted expanding infringement by the French and the British, which finished with the fall of the Mughal Empire in 1857.

Timeline of Mughal India
April 21, 1526: First Battle of Panipat, Babur defeats Ibrahim Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi, and founds Mughal Empire
March 17, 1527: Battle of Khanwa, Babur conquers the combined army of the Rajput princes and takes control of much of northern India
Dec. 26, 1530: Babur dies, is succeeded by son Humayan
July 11, 1543: Pashtun leader Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayan, drives him into exile in Afghanistan
1554: Humayan travels to Persia, hosted by Safavid emperor
July 23, 1555: Discord among Sher Shah Suri's successors allows Humayun to retake control of northern India, be restored to Mughal throne
Jan. 17, 1556: Humayan falls down stairs and dies, succeeded by 13-year-old son Akbar, later Akbar the Great
Nov. 5, 1556: Second Battle of Panipat, child Emperor Akbar's army defeats Hemu's Hindu forces
1560s - 1570s: Akbar consolidates Mughal rule over much of northern and central India, as well as what is now Pakistan and Bangladesh
Oct. 27, 1605: Akbar the Great dies, succeeded by his son Jahangir
1613: The British East India Company defeats Portuguese at Surat, Gujarat State and establishes the first warehouse in India
1615: Britain sends the first ambassador, Sir Thomas Roe, to Mughal court
1620s: Mughal art reaches a high point under Jahangir's rule
1627: Emperor Jahangir dies, succeeded by son Shah Jahan
1632: Shah Jahan orders destruction of newly-built Hindu temples, breaking with Mughal record of religious tolerance
1632: Shah Jahan designs and begins building Taj Mahal as a tomb for his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal
1644: British East India Company builds Fort St. George in Madras (now Chennai), southeast coastal India
1658: Aurangzeb imprisons his father, Shah Jahan, for the rest of his life in the Red Fort at Agra
1660s-1690s: Aurangzeb expands Mughal rule to more than 3.2 million square km, including Assam, the Deccan plateau, and parts of southern India
1671: Aurangzeb orders construction of the Badshahi Mosque at Lahore, now in Pakistan
1696: Establishment of British East India Company's Fort William on Ganges delta, fort and trading factory which becomes Calcutta (Kolkata)
March 3, 1707: Death of Aurangzeb marks the end of Mughal Golden Era, beginning of slow decline; he is succeeded by son Bahadur Shah I
Feb. 27, 1712: Bahadur Shah I dies, succeeded by incompetent son Jahandar Shah
Feb. 11, 1713: Jahandar Shah is executed by agents of nephew Farrukhsiyar, who takes the Mughal throne
1713 - 1719: Weak-willed Emperor Farrukhsiyar falls under the control of Syed brothers, two generals and king-makers who had helped depose Jahandar Shah
Feb. 28, 1719: Syed brothers have Emperor Farrukhsiyar blinded and strangled; his cousin Rafi ud-Darjat becomes new Mughal emperor
June 13, 1719: 19-year-old Emperor Rafi ud-Darjat is murdered at Agra after just three months on the throne; Syeds appoint brother Rafi ud-Daulah to succeed him
Sept. 19, 1719: Syeds kill 23-year-old Emperor Rafi ud-Daulah after three months on the throne
Sept. 27, 1719: Syed brothers place 17-year-old Muhammad Shah on Mughal throne and rule in his name until 1720
Oct. 9, 1720: Emperor Muhammad Shah orders Syed Hussain Ali Khan killed at Fatehpur Sikri
Oct. 12, 1722: Emperor Muhammad Shah has Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha poisoned to death, takes power in his own right
1728 - 1763: Mughal-Maratha Wars; Marathas seize Gujarat and Malwa, raid Delhi
Feb. 13, 1739: Nader Shah of Persia invades India, wins Battle of Karnal, loots Delhi, steals Mughal Peacock Throne
March 11, 1748: Battle of Manipur, Mughal Army defeats Durrani invasion force from Afghanistan
Apr. 26, 1748: Emperor Muhammad Shah dies, succeeded by 22-year-old son Ahmad Shah Bahadur
May 1754: Battle of Sikandarabad, Marathas defeat Mughal Imperial Army, kill 15,000 Mughal troops
June 2, 1754: Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur deposed and blinded by Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk; former emperor spends rest of life in prison, dying in 1775
June 3, 1754: Imad-ul-Mulk appoints Alamgir II, the 55-year-old second son of Jahandar Shah, as the new Mughal Emperor
1756: British make lurid charges about imprisonment and death of 123 British and Anglo-Indian troops by Bengali captors in Black Hole of Calcutta; story likely fabricated
Nov. 29, 1759: Imad-ul-Mulk and Maratha ruler Sadashivrao Bhau conspire to murder Alamgir II, place Aurangzeb's grandson Shah Jahan III on Mughal throne
Oct. 10, 1760: Shah Jahan III deposed after less than a year, but survives until 1772; succeeded by Alamgir II's son, Shah Alam II
Oct. 1760 - 1806: Emperor Shah Alam II, in alliance with Durranis, works to restore the glory of Mughal Empire
Oct. 23, 1764: Battle of Buxar, British East India Company defeats the combined army of Emperor Shah Alam II and the nawabs of Awadh and Bengal
Nov. 19, 1806: Emperor Shah Alam II dies, marking the end of effective leadership from Mughal Dynasty; he is succeeded by hapless son Akbar Shah II, who is a puppet of the British
Sept. 28, 1837: Akbar Shah II dies at age of 77, succeeded as a puppet ruler by son Bahadur Shah II
1857: Use of pork and/or beef fat on army cartridges sets off "Sepoy Mutiny" or Indian Revolt
1858: British use Indian Revolt of 1857 as the pretext to exile last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, to Rangoon, Burma; Mughal dynasty ends
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